© Adriana Cerrotti 2020
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It is essential not to jump into the temptation of designing hi-fi wireframes before quick sketching and iterating some tentative options on paper. This step is fundamental to the design process.

Wireframe and Quick Sketching
Low Fidelity Wireframes
Image Image Image Image Image
4-Finalization
Testing Early Design Using Chalkmark
Comparison Chart
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I used  Chalkmark (an online unmoderated tool) to test findability in my web application design.
Minimun Viable Realistic Prototype
Final Thoughts
Findability is dependant on proper Information Architecture (IA). If users cannot find the required information, they will not be able to complete desirable tasks. A user unable to find what he or she is looking for will become frustrated and ultimately abandon the site, and we might lose their business. System thinking, frequent testing, and proper site mapping are fundamental to achieve the best IA.
The last step, in this case-study, was to create a minimum viable prototype that would address a few use cases for further testing to move forward with the concept towards more design and final execution.
Study Final Comments
The Chalkmark evaluation helped confirm performance patterns and explore other issues, some of which might deserve in-depth analysis through further testing.
Users’ Library Habits
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The main type of organization scheme for this website — within a hierarchic organization structure — will be ambiguous.
Frequently
Organization Scheme
The main classification scheme will be Topic. It will organize the content by based on subject matter. It will define the "universe of content" that the users will expect to find within every area of the website.
Frequently
Classification Scheme
Audience is the other classification selected. Given the different needs of the three main groups of our audience — according to the data researched — it’ll be appropriate to use this classification as well. As our research revealed, our personas have different needs. It is important to address them by categories that they would represent them. This way, the users could explore the main general categories, or the particular group categories that they identify with (adults, teens, kids), when they feel that their needs are specific to certain age category.
Frequently
Other Classification
B-Selected Schemes
Image Image Image
Personas
Given the fact that many of the library offerings are age specific, and each of our personas belongs to a particular age group and have different needs, some of the content should be classified by group age. For example: adult, teens, kids, etc. Then, certain content would be available not only through the Main menu but also through the age specific section, allowing category boundaries to overlap. It will help the user to find content in more than one place depending of his or her navigation style or preference. These classifications will be located on the secondary navigation, as illustrated on the sitemap.
Content should be available, since it is of medium priority to users. It should be easy to find. It will be part of the left frame navigation.
This kind of content is also of high priority to our users. Then, he or she should be able to find it quick and easily, such as within the Main menu.
This kind of content is also of high priority to our users. Then, he or she should be able to find it quick and easily, such as within the Main menu.
This kind of content is also of high priority to our users. Then, he or she should be able to find it quick and easily, such as within the Main menu.
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Age Specific
Chat
Frequently
Digital Resources
These types of services are relevant content to our users and it is missing. According to our research, it is a very important topic for library users. Now, it will be part of the Main menu.
Our user is interested in free services and programs. Then, that content should be distinguished and categorized for easy recognition and finding. This content is high priority to our users.
The help content is missing and very important to our users. It needs to be added, as illustrated on the sitemap. It will be part of the Main menu and accesible from all the pages.
Free Services
Job/Career
Frequently
Help
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Content that is not present and needs to be created:
The main navigation menu, located on the top frame can also be improved. The content needs to be re-grouped and re-categorized using proper labels. Some of the categories will be deleted — as indicated in the content inventory chart — and replaced. For example, the Hours section now will be part of the Home’s body given the importance of the content. On the other hand, according to our research, Community Links, is not relevant content to our users. If it were necessary at all, it could be moved or incorporated into a less important section of the site.
Given the relevance that the date and hours information has to our users, it should be clear and available on the home page — perhaps in the body too, as well as its own section now called Location and Open Hours — and accessible from all pages.
The content located on the left frame navigation can be improved. It needs to be re-grouped and re-categorized using proper labels. Some of the mentioned content can be moved to the top main navigation frame, following the user research need and priorities. For example, items such as Heritage Room and Ellison Room are listed separated. But these two items are related and can belong to a same category, such as the Collections category.
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The main navigation menu, located on the top frame can also be improved.
Given the relevance that the date and hours information has to our users, it should be clear and available on the home page.
The content located on the left frame navigation can be improved. It needs to be re-grouped and re-categorized using proper labels.
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Location and Open Hours:
Main Navigation
Frequently
Left Navigation
Content that needs to be reworked:
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A-Content Analysis
Content present in the site that can be repurposed:
2-Content, Labeling and  Taxonomy
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The following is a sitemap with labeling, taxonomy, and classifications that adapt to the user’s needs. It illustrates where the high, medium and the low task will be accessed from and how they are distributed within the whole site.
C-Sitemap and Key Tasks
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Median time to complete the study
4m 21
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out of 7
Participants that completed the test.
4
Loaded taxonomy (7 tasks)soTreejack studymething
Step 1
Recruited participants ( 4 completed the test)something
Step 2
Step 3
Collected results for further analysis.
The Steps
3-Assessing Labeling & Taxonomy
Success score
(participants ending up at the correct answer)
82%
Reached the expected destination
Participant 2

✔︎
Participant 3

✔︎
Participant 3

Participant 1

✔︎
64%
Average directness score
(tasks chosen without backtracking)
Highlighted Points of the Test’s Results
Across all the tasks:
At tasks 3 (MD), 4 (HP), 6 (MP), and 7 (LP):
Task 6
This is a medium priority task. A fair amount of users will be looking for this feature. The testing results showed that the label Contact misled a couple of users. They went to Contact looking for a live person to talk. However, the Contact label contains information about the library’s location, open hours, and direction map. Then, I suggest using a more specific and explicit label for the contact content, such as the library’s address, or how to get to the library to avoid users go wrongly to that section looking for a live library employee. By introducing this change, the label will not compete with the Help/Chat level, which is the one that contains task 6’s information, and the user will find a librarian or library’s employee to talk to and get advice.
Task 7
This is a low priority task. Our audience is not interested in the institution’s
history and culture as the services it offers. However, it could be improved. A high percentage
of participants, 75%, succeeded in reaching the expected destination. But, none of them arrived
at it directly. Changing the label About the Library to a more specific label such as Learn
Everything About the Library could improve the time frame in which the user associates the
location with the task content. As a place where to learn about the library’s history, how to
support it, and any other future institutional content.
Other
Supporting the library has not been a task that interested our audience in particular. But it may be of interest to the library to promote this kind of action. If this were the case, I recommend the following. Since Support the Library is located in About the Library (the future Learn Everything About the Library), a location that is not of high interest to our audience, the link could be moved to a more transited location such as “Free Programs & Classes” for example. Where people may be more inclined to not only take but also give.
Task 5
The previous changes used to improve Task 6 will directly affect Task 5. They may enhance its level of directness, since one participant backed from the Main Menu when looking for information on how to “locate and visit the library”, before succeeding. Since now the Contact label will be library’s address, or How to get to the library, it will be more transparent for the user that this is the place where to find the institution’s address if he or she missed it from the body of the homepage
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Task 6
This is a medium priority task. A fair amount of users will be looking for this feature…
Task 7
This is a low priority task. Our audience is not interested in the institution’s
history and culture…
Other
Supporting the library has not been a task that interested our audience in particular…
Task 5
The previous changes used to improve Task 6 will directly affect Task 5…
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Suggested Changes
List of Tasks
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1. Where would you go to find information about job opportunities in your area? (HP:High Priority)
2. Where would you go to find information about any free or low-cost language course offered by the library? (HP)
3. Where would you look for information about music concerts and other cultural happenings organized by the library? (MP: Medium Priority)
4. Where would you find the book you are looking for to read on your iPad? (HP)
5. Where would you find the information you need to locate and visit the library? (HP)
6. Where would you go if you need to speak to a live person about a service you are looking for? (MP)
7. Where would you go to learn about the library's culture and history? (LP: Low Priority)
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Frequently
Peggy
Jackie
Richard
High Priority Tasks
✔︎
✔︎
General Help/ contact
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Open hours/ location
✔︎
✔︎
Free programs/services
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Digital Resources
✔︎
Medium Priority Tasks
Catalog
✔︎
Get an appointment with a librarian
Low Priority Tasks
✔︎
Services (Job & career, library card, parks and museums, can’t find it, etc)
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
About the institution
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Support the institution
✔︎
Information for adult users
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Information for teen/kid users
✔︎
✔︎
Information by school education level
✔︎
✔︎
Event calendar
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Chat
✔︎
Task Priority by Persona
Frequently
User
Most Popular Website Features by Priority Order
Digital, Adults, Get Help, Chat. something
Adults
Visit Us, Digital, Get Help, Chat, Teens and Kids, Schools.
Parents
Digital/Galileo, Digital Resources, Catalog, Get Help, Chat.
Teens
Adults, Get Help, Calendar, Visit Us.
Retired
Help Request at Gwinnett County Public Library
Frequently
User
Frequently
Sometimes
Rarely
✔︎
Adults
Parents
✔︎
✔︎
Teens
Retired
✔︎
Help Request at Gwinnett County Public Library
The Upper Sandusky Community Library website originally had a practical and tested value. However,  the library director was not happy with it. The need to redesign the site from the ground up to help people find objects and information in better ways, and incorporate thematic elements, was the best option. The director observed that the site was technologically outdated. In addition to that, the site had a confusing design with too many inconsistent elements. It was challenging and expensive to maintain. High maintenance was a concerning issue to the director because of a lack of funding for it, and a small size staff to serve this purpose.

The main goal of the project was to improve the overall website’s functionality. Then, good information architecture (IA) design would offer the Upper Sandusky Community Library the opportunity to empower the site’s users by improving their ability to learn and make better decisions, from the site’s organization and content. Good usability depends heavily on effective IA. This concept guided me throughout the realization of this project.
Introduction
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Website Re-design
My Role
Information Architect
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Sector
Education
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Main Goal
Improve the overall website’s functionality.
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Client
301 N. Sandusky Ave. Upper Sandusky, OH 43351
(419) 294-1345 | info@upper-sandusky.lib.oh.us
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General Results:

• The use of website libraries is becoming more popular than visits to the library.
• E-books and digital audio, and career and job related subjects are the most popular.
• Learning new skills, ESOL and other language training, and online education
resources are often consulted/requested.
• Older adults look for recreating activities and events that offer opportunities to
socialize.
• More educated people tend to reach libraries more often than less educated people.
• Parents are popular library users.
• People that use libraries are more likely to be technologically literate.
• Library users see themselves are perpetual learners.
• Library website users are likely to:
• Learn to improve job skills
• Acquire further training
• Pursue a job promotion or a new job.
• Update their skills
Specific to Gwinnett County Public Library:

• The use of website libraries is becoming more popular than visits to the library.
• E-books and digital audio, and career and job related subjects are the most popular.
• Learning new skills, ESOL and other language training, and online education
resources are often consulted/requested.
• Older adults look for recreating activities and events that offer opportunities to
socialize.
• More educated people tend to reach libraries more often than less educated people.
• Parents are popular library users.
• People that use libraries are more likely to be technologically literate.
• Library users see themselves are perpetual learners.
• Library website users are likely to:
• Learn to improve job skills
• Acquire further training
• Pursue a job promotion or a new job.
• Update their skills
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General Results:


• The use of website libraries is becoming more popular than visits to the library.
• E-books and digital audio, and career and job related subjects are the most popular.
• Learning new skills, ESOL and other language training, and online education
resources are often consulted/requested.
• Older adults look for recreating activities and events that offer opportunities to
socialize.
See more
See more
Specific to Gwinnett County Public Library:


• The use of website libraries is becoming more popular than visits to the library.
• E-books and digital audio, and career and job related subjects are the most popular.
• Learning new skills, ESOL and other language training, and online education
resources are often consulted/requested.
Interview Results
GOAL
To gain insight into the user - people who use municipal libraries - his or her behavior, motivations, interests, and decision making.
For this purpose, I interviewed two persons from the Gwinnett County Public Library, located at 3480 Duluth Park Ln NW, Duluth, GA 30096. The persons interviewed provided beneficial information about the users.

PROCEDURE
# of interviews: 2
Participants: Librarians from the Gwinnett County Public Library.
Interview length:  15 to 20 minutes.
Format: A set of 12 questions.

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1-How would you describe and define the site's primary most frequent user?
2-How would you define the site's secondary most frequent user?
3-What other users visit the site?
4-What kind of information is most frequently required by all users?
5-What kind of feature is the most used by the site's users?
Is there any other feature that you might consider popular among a particular group of users?
6-What are the most popular researched topics?
7-Does the demand vary throughout the year? (If yes:) How?
8-How does the user most commonly search for that kind of information?
9-Why do the users that prefer to use the Gwinnett County Public 10-Library's website instead of going personally to the library's site do it?
In your opinion, is there any particular reason why users would go to your library instead of the Northeast/SpruilOaksRegional 11-Library at Johns Creek?
12-What are the most frequent complaints you hear about the library and website?
QUESTIONS
QUESTIONS
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1-How would you describe and define the site's primary most frequent user?
2-How would you define the site's secondary most frequent user?
3-What other users visit the site?
Interview
1-Understanding Users and Context
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UPPER SANDUSKY COMMUNITY LIBRARY
Information Architecture
UX/UI/Projects > Upper Sandusky
Image
Image Image Image
Image Image Image
It is essential not to jump into the temptation of designing hi-fi wireframes before quick sketching and iterating some tentative options on paper. This step is fundamental to the design process.

Wireframe and Quick Sketching
Low Fidelity Wireframes
Image Image Image Image Image
4-Finalization
Testing Early Design Using Chalkmark
Comparison Chart
Image
I used  Chalkmark (an online unmoderated tool) to test findability in my web application design.
Minimun Viable Realistic Prototype
Final Thoughts
Findability is dependant on proper Information Architecture (IA). If users cannot find the required information, they will not be able to complete desirable tasks. A user unable to find what he or she is looking for will become frustrated and ultimately abandon the site, and we might lose their business. System thinking, frequent testing, and proper site mapping are fundamental to achieve the best IA.
The last step, in this case-study, was to create a minimum viable prototype that would address a few use cases for further testing to move forward with the concept towards more design and final execution.
Study Final Comments
The Chalkmark evaluation helped confirm performance patterns and explore other issues, some of which might deserve in-depth analysis through further testing.
Frequently
Peggy
Jackie
Richard
High Priority Tasks
✔︎
✔︎
General Help/ contact
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Open hours/ location
✔︎
✔︎
Free programs/services
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Digital Resources
✔︎
Medium Priority Tasks
Catalog
✔︎
Get an appointment with a librarian
Low Priority Tasks
✔︎
Services (Job & career, library card, parks and museums, can’t find it, etc)
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
About the institution
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Support the institution
✔︎
Information for adult users
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Information for teen/kid users
✔︎
✔︎
Information by school education level
✔︎
✔︎
Event calendar
✔︎
✔︎
✔︎
Chat
✔︎
Task Priority by Persona
Users’ Library Habits
Image
Frequently
User
Most Popular Website Features by Priority Order
Digital, Adults, Get Help, Chat. something
Adults
Visit Us, Digital, Get Help, Chat, Teens and Kids, Schools.
Parents
Digital/Galileo, Digital Resources, Catalog, Get Help, Chat.
Teens
Adults, Get Help, Calendar, Visit Us.
Retired
Help Request at Gwinnett County Public Library
Frequently
User
Frequently
Sometimes
Rarely
✔︎
Adults
Parents
✔︎
✔︎
Teens
Retired
✔︎
Help Request at Gwinnett County Public Library
The Upper Sandusky Community Library website originally had a practical and tested value. However,  the library director was not happy with it. The need to redesign the site from the ground up to help people find objects and information in better ways, and incorporate thematic elements, was the best option. The director observed that the site was technologically outdated. In addition to that, the site had a confusing design with too many inconsistent elements. It was challenging and expensive to maintain. High maintenance was a concerning issue to the director because of a lack of funding for it, and a small size staff to serve this purpose.

The main goal of the project was to improve the overall website’s functionality. Then, good information architecture (IA) design would offer the Upper Sandusky Community Library the opportunity to empower the site’s users by improving their ability to learn and make better decisions, from the site’s organization and content. Good usability depends heavily on effective IA. This concept guided me throughout the realization of this project.
Introduction
Image
The main type of organization scheme for this website — within a hierarchic organization structure — will be ambiguous.
Frequently
Organization Scheme
The main classification scheme will be Topic. It will organize the content by based on subject matter. It will define the "universe of content" that the users will expect to find within every area of the website.
Frequently
Classification Scheme
Audience is the other classification selected. Given the different needs of the three main groups of our audience — according to the data researched — it’ll be appropriate to use this classification as well. As our research revealed, our personas have different needs. It is important to address them by categories that they would represent them. This way, the users could explore the main general categories, or the particular group categories that they identify with (adults, teens, kids), when they feel that their needs are specific to certain age category.
Frequently
Other Classification
B-Selected Schemes
Website Re-design
My Role
Information Architect
Image
Sector
Education
Image
Main Goal
Improve the overall website’s functionality.
Image Image
Client
301 N. Sandusky Ave. Upper Sandusky, OH 43351
(419) 294-1345 | info@upper-sandusky.lib.oh.us